Our nation's most notorious assassins gather on stage to violently pursue a twisted American Dream.
Show Essentials
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Full Synopsis

The show opens to a half dozen American bystanders waving cheerfully at a passing parade, or motorcade. The scene quickly shifts to the shooting gallery at a fairground. There is something sinister about this place - both in the targets and the prizes hanging on the wall. The Proprietor stands behind the counter.

Leon Czolgosz, a scruffy, sullen laborer in his late twenties, shuffles in sadly. The Proprietor advises Czolgosz he can chase his blues away by killing a President, pointing out that assassination is a skill at which even rank beginners can excel. As Czolgosz picks up a gun, John Hinckley, a plump 21-year-old, ambles aimlessly in. The Proprietor convinces him he can improve his love life and impress his dream girl by shooting a President. They are joined by Charles Guiteau, who enters furtively, dressed in black. His shoes are polished, but he wears no socks. The Proprietor says he can overcome failure by killing a President, and he steps up to the shooting gallery. He is soon joined by Giuseppe Zangara, a tiny, angry man, who groans and rubs his stomach. The Proprietor promises shooting a President will relieve his pain. The next arrival is Samuel Byck in a dirty Santa suit. As the Proprietor encourages him to pick up a gun, Lynette Fromme, a small, intense girl wearing red religious robes, and Sara Jane Moore, a bright-eyed, heavy-set, middle-aged woman, enter. The Proprietor signs them up after Moore has a great deal of difficulty finding the proper change in her purse. John Wilkes Booth appears. The Proprietor introduces him as the group's pioneer and distributes ammunition ("Everybody's Got The Right").

As the assassins take aim, Lincoln's arrival is announced offstage. Booth excuses himself and a shot rings out.

A Balladeer enters to tell the story of John Wilkes Booth. We see Booth and accomplice David Herold hiding in a tobacco barn in rural Virginia. Booth knows he is about to be captured and is trying to write his justification for his actions in his diary. His statements that his actions were politically motivated are juxtaposed with the Balladeer's comments that Booth's motives actually have to do with his own personal problems. As Booth is shot by a Union soldier, he throws the Balladeer his diary, begging him to tell his story to the world. The Balladeer recites Booth's version of events as Booth shoots himself. As Booth dies, the Balladeer concludes that Booth was a madman who left behind a legacy of butchery and treason. He points out that, ironically, in trying to destroy Lincoln, Booth actually elevated him to legendary status ("The Ballad Of Booth").

Back in the limbo of the fairground, the assassins are gathered in what could be a bar or a saloon. Through the course of their conversations, their various troubles and motivations begin to be revealed. Hinckley accidentally breaks a Coke bottle, which enrages Czolgosz - who it turns out has suffered greatly working in a bottle factory. Zangara complains about his stomach, and Booth encourages him to do something about it - like shooting President Roosevelt.

In the next moment, a radio reports that Zangara has attempted to assassinate Franklin D. Roosevelt. We go to the rally, where members of the crowd speak into microphones telling the radio audience their distorted impressions of the event they have witnessed; everyone is convinced that he or she personally saved the President's life with some seemingly inconsequential action. Zangara is strapped into the electric chair. It's clear he shot Roosevelt so that he would be noticed, but even in his final moments the crowd ignores his explanations while the bystanders focus on how they look to the press ("How I Saved Roosevelt").

At an Anarchist rally in Chicago, Emma Goldman speaks offstage as Leon Czolgosz listens, enraptured. He introduces himself to her after the speech and declares he is in love with her. She encourages him to redirect his passion to the fight for social justice.

In a public park, Squeaky Fromme meets Sara Jane Moore. Fromme smokes a joint and speaks of her obsession with Charles Manson, the mass murderer. She declares herself his lover and slave. Juggling her purse, a Tab, and a bucket of Kentucky Fried Chicken, Moore says she is a narc for the FBI or used to be; has been a CPA; had five husbands and three kids; and suffers from amnesia. Fromme insists Manson is going to emerge as king of a new order and make her his queen. Moore is sure she knew Manson when he was much younger. The scene ends as they both give the portrait of Colonel Sanders on Moore's bucket of chicken the evil eye, then blast it to pieces with their guns. 

Lights up on Czolgosz examing an empty pistol, while the Proprieter watches from the shadows. Czolgosz reflects on the amount of energy and manpower that goes into making a gun; the other assassins join him in commenting on the ability of such a small object to change the world ("Gun Song").

The scene morphs into the the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, where Czolgosz watches President McKinley shake visitors' hands in the Temple of Music Pavilion. The Balladeer traces Czolgosz as he works his way down the receiving line of fairgoers who see only the positive elements of McKinley's image. When Czolgosz finally reaches the head of the line, he shoots McKinley ("The Ballad Of Czolgosz"). 

Back in limbo, Samuel Byck enters in his soiled Santa suit and sits on a park bench with a picket sign and shopping bag. He drinks a Yoo-Hoo and talks into his tape recorder. He is sending a message to the composer Leonard Bernstein, begging him to save the world by writing more love songs. By the end, he accuses Bernstein of ignoring him just like the other celebrities with whom he has tried to communicate. 

Squeaky Fromme finds John Hinckley playing the guitar and she mocks him for his pathetic love of Jodie Foster, who he doesn't even know. Hinckley orders Fromme to leave. After she goes, he apologizes to Jodie for his weakness, explaining that he hopes to prove his worth to her. Simultaneously, in limbo, Fromme puts forth her similar feelings about Manson ("Unworthy Of Your Love"). Hinckley starts shooting at a photo of President Ronald Reagan that is projected on the back wall. The picture keeps reappearing as the Proprietor mocks Hinckley's inability to kill the President. 

Moore clumsily takes target practice, when Guiteau enters and gives her tips on shooting; he tries to kiss her and she refuses him. Her gun goes off in the scuffle. When she asks Guiteau if he's alright, he replies that he's more than alright and he assassinates President Garfield. Next we find Guiteau standing at the foot of the gallows reciting a poem, which he wrote on the morning of his death. The Balladeer describes his trial and execution as Guiteau cakewalks up and down the gallows steps ("The Ballad Of Guiteau").

Back in limbo, Squeaky Fromme and Sara Jane Moore implement their plan to assassinate President Gerald Ford. Moore has brought along her nine-year-old son and her dog, whom she accidentally shoots. The President, also clumsy, comes along, and in spite of his attempts to assist her collect some dropped bullets, Moore fails to assassinate him. Fromme's gun doesn't go off, so both attempts are botched. 

We move to Samuel Byck in his car on the way to the airport. He plans to hijack a plane and crash dive it into the White House. He recites a disjointed litany of complaints about contemporary American life and then announces the killing of the President as the only solution. The end of his monologue transitions to crowd noises blending into a wordess lament for the assassins' victims: Czolgosz, Booth, Hinckley, Fromme, Zangara, Guiteau, Moore, and Byck review their motives. They all want a prize they for their actions. The Balladeer tells them that hhere is no prize. The assassins, newly united with a common purpose, reply there is a different song stirring in America that continues to grow louder and louder, sung by all Americans who believe themselves dispossessed by the American dream ("Another National Anthem").

This moment leads us to the Texas School Book Depository in Dallas, Texas where Lee Harvey Oswald is preparing to kill himself in a storeroom on the Sixth Floor. Booth interrupts him and tries to convince him to murder President Kennedy instead. He summons Guiteau, Czolgosz, Zangara, Fromme, Moore, Byck and Hinckley from the shadows, telling Oswald that by joining them, he can at last be part of something ("November 22, 1963"). The assassins who preceded Oswald say he will bring them back; those who come after him say he will make them possible, by once again making assassination a part of the American experience. His act can give them historical power as a unified force, not as a bunch of isolated lunatics. Oswald refuses. Booth entices him with the information about the fame he will acquire, and the future assassinations he will inspire - including Hinckley's attempt. The assassins implore him to act so their own acts can be reborn. Finally, Oswald crouches at the window and shoots... 

The shocking impact of Oswald's deed is expressed by American citizens who gather together onstage to reflect on where they were when they heard President Kennedy had been shot ("Something Just Broke"). The assassins reappear in limbo asserting their need to be important ("Everybody's Got The Right - Reprise"). All of their guns go off at once and the curtain falls.

← Back to Assassins
Cast Size: Medium (11 to 20 performers)
Cast Type: Ensemble Cast
Dance Requirements: None

Character Breakdown

John Wilkes Booth
(1838-1865) Assassinated President Abraham Lincoln during a performance at Ford's Theater in Washington D.C. on April 14, 1865. Foreman and inspirational celebrity to the other assassins.
Gender: male
Age: 25 to 35
Vocal range top: G4
Vocal range bottom: F2
Charles Guiteau
(1841-1882) Assassinated President James Garfield in the waiting room of the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station, Washington, D.C., on July 2, 1881. Dashing but mad.
Gender: male
Age: 35 to 45
Vocal range top: Ab4
Vocal range bottom: A2
Leon Czologosz
(1873-1901) Assassinated President William McKinley at the Pan American Exposition in Buffalo, N.Y. on September 6, 1901. A young poverty-worn radical.
Gender: male
Age: 25 to 30
Vocal range top: G4
Vocal range bottom: G#2
Giuseppe Zangara
(1900-1933) Attempted to assassinate President-elect Franklin D. Roosevelt as he greeted well-wishers in Bayfront Park, Miami, FL on February 15, 1933. An angry, heavily-accented immigrant.
Gender: male
Age: 30 to 35
Vocal range top: A4
Vocal range bottom: B2
Samuel Byck
(1930-1974) Attempted to assassinate President Richard Nixon by hijacking a commercial jetliner. Hysterically irate schlep in a Santa Claus suit.
Gender: male
Age: 40 to 45
Vocal range top: G4
Vocal range bottom: D3
Lynette "squeaky" Fromme
(1948- ) Attempted to assassinate President Gerald Ford at the Capitol Park in Sacramento, CA on September 5, 1975. A pixie hippie in love with Charles Manson.
Gender: female
Age: 25 to 30
Vocal range top: G5
Vocal range bottom: A3
Sara Jane Moore
(1930- ) Attempted to assassinate President Gerald Ford at the St. Francis Hotel in San Francisco, CA, on September 22, 1975. A frazzled housewife with little sense.
Gender: female
Age: 40 to 45
Vocal range top: Eb5
Vocal range bottom: F3
John Hinckley
(1955- ) Attempted to assassinate President Ronald Reagan as he left the Washington Hilton in Washington, D.C. on March 30, 1981. A love-obsessed and depressed college student.
Gender: male
Age: 25 to 30
Vocal range top: G4
Vocal range bottom: A2
Lee Harvey Oswald
(1939-1963) Assassinated President John F. Kennedy from the sixth floor of the Texas School Book Depository in Dallas, TX on November 22, 1963. A suicidal, dejected shipping clerk.
Gender: male
Age: 20 to 25
Vocal range top: C4
Vocal range bottom: G3
A folk singer and the narrator of the show. The voice of America.
Gender: male
Age: 20 to 40
Vocal range top: G4
Vocal range bottom: C3
Emma Goldman
(1869-1940) Turn-of-the-century Anarchist agitator and feminist. Terse and stubborn. An inspiration to Czolgosz.
Gender: female
Age: 30 to 40
The Proprietor
A mysterious man who runs the shooting gallery at a carnival.
Gender: male
Age: 30 to 50
Vocal range top: F4
Vocal range bottom: Gb2
David Herold
(1842-1865) One of John Wilkes Booth's confederates. Aided Booth in his attempted escape.
Gender: male
Age: 20 to 25
Sara Jane Moore's whiny son.
Gender: male
Age: 8 to 8
Bystanders; Tourists; Reporters; Photographers
Full Song List
Assassins: Opening: Everybody's Got The Right
Assassins: The Ballad Of Booth
Assassins: How I Saved Roosevelt
Assassins: Gun Song
Assassins: Unworthy Of Your Love
Assassins: The Ballad Of Guiteau
Assassins: Another National Anthem
Assassins: Everybody's Got The Right (Finale)

Show History


Assassins is based on an idea by Charles Gilbert, Jr. Shortly after he finished graduate school, Gilbert began to work on a musical that incorporated the words and lives of the individuals who had tried, with or without success, to kill an American President. He was drawn to the passionate intensity of the characters and the ways in which their extreme behavior could be linked to motives and aspirations which are characteristically American. Gilbert ended up with a piece that had both original and historical material in it. The score included substantial amounts of rock and jazz as well as pastiches of music from other eras, and the production incorporated elements of multimedia such as projections, taped narrations, and sound collages. It was produced by Theater Express in 1979 and eventually reached Stephen Sondheim, who developed the idea into the musical we know today.


Assassins features music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by John Weidman, based on an idea by Charles Gilbert, Jr. Assassins premiered in 1990 at Playwrights Horizons in New York City as a completely sold-out limited run and instantly became one of the most talked-about musicals in years. The original cast album, released nine months later, propelled the show into legendary cult-favorite status.

Assassins opened in London at the Donmar Warehouse on October 29, 1992. Directed by Sam Mendes, the production included the addition of a new musical number, "Something Just Broke." The London production closed on January 9, 1993 after 76 performances.

Assassins was originally scheduled for a 2001 Broadway production by the Roundabout Theater Company. However, it was postponed due to the 9/11 terrorist attacks. A few years later, in 2004, Roundabout went forward with its Assassins revival. The production opened on April 22, 2004 at Studio 54 for a limited engagement.

Critical Reaction

"Sidesplitting and sobering in equal measure, this is the most provocative musical in years." -LA Times

"Unnerving . . . It's a brilliant show, filled with dark, demented humor." -Associated Press

Drama League Award

1991 - Distinguished Achievement in Musical Theatre, Winner (Stephen Sondheim)

Drama Desk Award

1991 - Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical, Nominee (Lee Wilkof)
1991 - Outstanding Book of a Musical, Nominee (John Weidman)
1991 - Outstanding Musical, Nominee (Assassins)
1991 - Outstanding Director Of A Musical, Nominee (Jerry Zaks)
1991 - Outstanding Music, Nominee (Stephen Sondheim)
1991 - Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical, Nominee (Lee Wilkof)
1991 - Outstanding Lyrics, Nominee (Stephen Sondheim)
1991 - Outstanding Lyrics, Nominee (Stephen Sondhein)
1991 - Outstanding Music, Nominee (Stephen Sondhein)
1991 - Outstanding Musical, Nominee ()
2004 - Outstanding Sound Design, Winner (Dan Moses Schreier)
2004 - Outstanding Revival of a Musical, Winner (Assassins)
2004 - Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical, Nominee (Marc Kudisch)
2004 - Outstanding Orchestrations, Winner (Michael Starobin)
2004 - Outstanding Direction of a Musical, Nominee (Joe Mantello)
2004 - Outstanding Set Design of a Musical, Nominee (Robert Brill)
2004 - Outstanding Lighting Design of a Musical, Winner (Jules Fisher & Peggy Eisenhauer)

Grammy Award

1991 - Best Musical Show Album, Nominee (Stephen Sondheim, composer)
2004 - Best Musical Show Album, Nominee (Tommy Krasker, Stephen Sondheim)

Tony® Award

2004 - Best Lighting Design, Winner (Jules Fisher & Peggy Eisenhauer)
2004 - Best Direction Of A Musical, Winner (Joe Mantello)
2004 - Best Orchestrations, Winner (Michael Starobin)
2004 - Best Revival Of A Musical, Winner (Assassins)
2004 - Best Featured Actor in a Musical, Winner (Michael Cerveris)
2004 - Best Featured Actor in a Musical, Nominee (Denis O'Hare)
2004 - Best Scenic Design, Nominee (Robert Brill)

Theatre World Award

2004 - Outstanding Debut Performer, Winner (Alexander Gemignani)

Outer Critics Circle Award

2004 - Outstanding Featured Actor in a Musical, Winner (Michael Cerveris)
2004 - Best Revival Of A Musical, Nominee (Assassins)
2004 - Outstanding Lighting Design, Winner (Jules Fisher & Peggy Eisenhauer)



Based on an idea by Charles Gilbert, Jr.


Under the terms and conditions of your organisation’s Performance Agreement, the following credits must appear on all advertising (including websites) relating to the production. Credits must be reproduced faithfully in accordance with the following layout. No alterations or deletions can be permitted unless stated below.
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Music and Lyrics by
Book by
ASSASSINS is based on an idea by Charles Gilbert, Jr.
Playwrights Horizons, Inc. - New York City
Produced ASSASSINS Off-Broadway in 1990
Orchestrations by
Michael Starobin
The Authors are to receive billing credit in all forms of publicity and advertising under the control of the Producer where and whenever the title of the Play appears. The names of the Composer/Lyricist and Bookwriter shall be equal in size, type, coloring, boldness and prominence. No billing shall appear in type larger or more prominent than the billing to the Authors except for the title of the Play. In addition, only stars billed above the title of the Play may receive billing as large or prominent as the Authors. No more than two stars shall be billed above the title of the Play. No billing box may be used. No person (including without limitation the Producer) shall be accorded possessory credit (i.e., "Director's Production of" or "Producer's Production of" with the title of the Play). Playwrights Horizons and Charles Gilbert, Jr. shall receive credit on the title page of all programs as well as on all posters and publications.
First Broadway Production,
2004 Roundabout Theatre Company
Todd Haimes, Artistic Director
*Such billing shall be in size of type not less than 50% of the Producer's credit above the title or 15% of the title, whichever is greater. This additional billing credit applies to professional productions ONLY; amateur groups are not required to add this billing credit.
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